N. N. Mohsenin: Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials. Structure, Physical Characteristics and Mechanical Properties. 2. Aufl. Seiten, zahlr. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials: Structure, Physical Characteristics and Mechanical Properties | graphs, . Physical properties of plant and animal materials by Nuri N. Mohsenin, , Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Pennsylvania State University.
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Nuri N. Mohsenin is the author of Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials ( avg rating, 28 ratings, 2 reviews, published ), Thermal Pro. green movements. Download Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials pdf · Read Online Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Material pdf. Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials: Structure, Physical Characteristics, and Mechanical Properties. Front Cover.
The fluidization velocity for granular material and settling velocity are also calculated for the body immersed in viscous fluid. Knowledge of the thermal properties of foods is essential in the analysis and design of various food processes and food processing equipment involved in heat transport, with respect to heat transfer or energy use, such as in extrusion cooking, drying, sterilization, cooking etc.
The most important thermal properties in food processing such as, specific heat capacity Cp , thermal conductivity k , and thermal diffusivity a. Specific heat has an important role in determination of energy cost and for the dimensions of machinery and equipment that are needed in thermal processes.
Furthermore, specific heat Cp of food materials changes according to their physical and chemical properties. The thermal conductivity k of food determines how fast heat can be evenly transferred to the entire food mass, which in turn affects the quality of the final product.
When heating and cooling of materials involves unsteady state or transient heat conduction, the material temperature changes with time and knowledge of the thermal diffusivity a is required for predicting temperature in these processes. The use of hyperspectral, multispectral, infrared imaging and computer vision system have enabled even determination of moisture and other chemical composition, contamination of agro commodities to greater satisfaction of consumer and trader and reduced the manual inspection, which might be subjected to error due to fatigue.
These systems offer the potential to automate manual grading practices and thus to standardize techniques and eliminate tedious inspection tasks. The automated inspection of produce using machine vision not only results in labour savings, but also can improve inspection, objectivity. The degree of heating of a food material subjected to microwave or radio frequency processing is strongly influenced by the dielectric properties of the food.
Dielectric heating or volumetric heating occurs due to polarization and ionization of molecules, which are effectively used in drying, sterilization, pasteurization and other thermal processing operations.
Engineering Properties of Biological Materials and Food Quality 3(2+1)
Dielectric constant is a measure of the ability of a material to store electromagnetic energy whereas dielectric loss factor is a measure of the ability of a material to convert electromagnetic energy to heat. A product with a higher loss tangent will heat faster under microwave field as compared to a product with a lower loss tangent.
Moreover, the effect of high intensity sound waves on living cell also are being explored and effectively used in homogenizing liquid sample, extraction of plant materials and as pretreatment for drying and dehydration process. Ultrasound is the sound that is above the threshold of the human ear above 18 kHz. Ultrasound is generated with either piezoelectric or magnetostrictive transducers that create high-energy vibrations.
These vibrations are amplified and transferred to a sonotrode or probe, which is in direct contact with the fluid.
Some known applications of high power ultrasound in agro- processing include the following: extraction release of plant material , emulsification, homogenization, crystallization formation of smaller ice crystals in freezing , filtration, separation, viscosity alteration, defoaming, a pretreatment for drying and extrusion. Ultrasound inactivates enzymes and bacteria by breaking the cell membranes due to the violence of cavitation and due to the formation of free radicals and hence used for pasteurization and blanching.
Electrical conductance or capacitance has been used for determining the moisture content of grain.
Electrostatic separation of grains is also used for separating grains, based on the ability of the grain to hold electrostatic charge.
Electrical conductivity of the grain decides the ability of the material to hold electrostatic charge.
Recently ohmic heating has been in use for drying, pasteurization, blanching and other thermal processing of foods, based on resistance heating. Ohmic processing, sometimes described as resistive heating, consists of passing mains alternating current directly through a conductive food, which in turn leads to heat generation.
Because heating accompanies the current; heat distribution throughout the product is far more rapid and even, which in turn can result in better flavor retention and particulate integrity compared to conventional processes.
The efficiency of ohmic heating is dependent on the conductive nature of the food to be processed and hence knowledge of the conductivity of the food as a whole and its components is essential in designing a successful heating process. The rheological behavior under limited deformation has been widely used to obtain information on the structure and viscoelasticity of materials.
An understanding of flow behavior is necessary to determine the size of the pump and pipe and the energy requirements. The rheological models obtained from the experimental measurements can be useful in design of food engineering processes if used together with momentum, energy, and mass balances.
Effects of processing on rheological properties must be known for process control. Foods have different textural properties. These differences are caused by inherent differences due to the variety difference, differences due to maturity, and differences caused by processing methods. Food texture can be evaluated by sensory or instrumental methods. Sensory methods need a taste panel containing trained panelists. It is hard to repeat the results.
Instrumental methods are less expensive and less time consuming as compared to sensory methods. Coefficient of friction of pulse grains on various surfaces at different moisture content, International Journal of Food Properties, , Bourne, M.
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Physical properties of plant and animal materials structure, physical characteristics and mechanical properties by Nuri N. Mohsenin 3 Want to read Published by Dept. Written in English.
Subjects Food , Matter , Properties. Table of Contents v. Structure, physical characteristics, and rheological properties. Texture of foods, mechanical damage, aero- and hydrodynamic characteristics, and frictional properties. Edition Notes Includes bibliographies.
The Physical Object Pagination v.Some physical properties Nutritional and physical properties of hackberry Celtis australis L.
Clay particles are sticky, so they are not easily moved. When we breathe in too high concentrations of cobalt through air we experience lung effects, such as asthma and pneumonia. Vertical and horizantal height values were Galvanized sheet 0. Google Scholar 6. Google Scholar 2. Modelling of Grain Drying in Silos. On the other hand, soils near mining and melting facilities may contain very high amounts of cobalt, so that the uptake by animals through eating plants can cause health effects.
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