[Download eBook] Johann Wolfgang Goethe Faust I Lektreschlssel - PDFFormat at lacatanphydun.tk Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. Juni Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Faust, Der Tragödie erster Teil. Quelle: http://www. lacatanphydun.tk Der Lektüreschlüssel erschließt Johann Wolfgang Goethes "Faust II". Um eine Interpretation als Online Lektüreschlüssel. Johann Wolfgang Goethe: Faus pdf.
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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Faust Parts I & II .. Part I Scene I: Night. (In a high -vaulted Gothic chamber, Faust, in a chair at his desk, restless.) Ah! Now I've. Free site book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. wolfgang von goethes faust i nachdem goethe seit der fertigstellung des ersten lektreschlssel bezieht sich auf folgende textausgabe johann wolfgang goethe.
Additionally Prof. The poetry covered message left by Goethe for future generations seems like especially addressed to us. In times regarding skepticism about our financial system, speed of economic life and economic transactions and growth without limits, it seems to relate to us more than to most previous generations.
During the 18th century and previously gold and silver coins were several times replaced in various European countries with paper money, bank notes, promissory notes, assignats and other paper bills.
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All these attempts ended sooner or later in a massive inflation. The widely known biography of Scotsman John Law, who was a soldier of fortune, mathematician and gambler, is a very good example. His life was certainly known to Goethe because John Law became subject to contemporary long lasting caricatures, when he failed epically with his paper money concept in France in Originally, Law had been called to France by the French Regent the Duke of Orleans who tried to restore the dire state finances with his aid and later put all blame for the failure on him.
Earlier than in other cities on this important market place the exchange and monetary value of things became more important than their mere practical value. The Fugger family of the city of Augsburg had operated in the 16th century at the dawn of the modern era a traditional banking business, where the deposits were taken in from other patrician families or from secular and ecclesiastical rulers The deposits were on the asset side of the balance sheet and countered the loans counter inclusive those given to the ruling dynasties.
The ruling houses, however, got often rid of these debts with occasional bankruptcies.
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In order to promote national debt and to foster a broader diversification of risks an early type of investment banking was invented by Frankfurt Banks around two centuries later. The Frankfurt financial center, however, has its historical origin in the importance as a trade fair location since the Middle Ages and this trade fare is mentioned in a Jewish text in for the first time During the fairs even simple financial transactions like the exchange of coins and bills were operated since Moreover, a permanent financial activity can be demonstrated in Frankfurt only in the 17th century.
Initially, this activity consisted mainly of trading exchange bills. They called such a construction, which is commonly referred to as bond today, Partial Obligation bond Although, the bond was not invented in Frankfurt but in Amsterdam it was common in many European financial centers and in Germany especially in Frankfurt.
These businesses gained considerable momentum, like for example the Frankfurt Bankhaus Bethmann. Bethmann Bank was founded in the 18th century and became one of the main financial partners of the Habsburgs due to the issuance of bonds.
Even Goethe was known among Frankfurt bankers as a scion of a wealthy family and he was in a business relationship with the Bethmann Bank 16 ibid. The Bethmanns charged a commission of 5 to 5. George Reiff, PhD In addition, a commission of about one percent was due on the collection and payment of interest and principal. The business flourished until the Austrian emissions lost its value because of political turmoil after the French Revolution. After the French Revolutionary and following Napoleonic wars, the potential government debt grew with the involvement of private investors as broad customer base for bonds.
The necessary trading techniques - an early version of investment banking — were invented at Goethe's time and blossomed — after the aforementioned initial setbacks - most in his city Frankfurt in Germany Under French Revolutionary government in West Germany, the assignats of the French Revolution and their demise had also been tangible fact for Goethe.
Assignats 19,20, 21, 22, 23 Assignats came to French via Latin assignare "to allocate" were originally paper money of the French Revolution. The French Revolution assignats were put into circulation initially worth million livres, covered by the expropriated estates in by a decision of the Constituent National Assembly.
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Initially they were meant to be government bonds to cover the budget deficit. The first emission took place in April Already in September , a second emission worth million livres was launched. Therefore, in April , a law was passed that anyone who demanded different prices in coins and assignats, had to expect punishment up to six years in prison.
A year later the mere question of a merchant whether a customer would want to pay with coins or with assignats, would result in the death penalty.
In mid the assignats issued reached the 12 billion livres mark and since they were covered with real estate, the price for land automatically increased. Finally, in there were assignats worth 46 billion livres and so these were abolished on 19 February after the value of the assignats had fallen in the 6 years of their existence to less than one percent. The territorial mandates lost value at the same pace as the assignats did previously.
Finally, all assignats were declared invalid on Shortly before rescinding all assignats and mandates on 21 May the French attempted to change the almost worthless French paper money into German silver money in the then occupied Rhenish areas around Cologne and Mayence.
As Mayence is very close to Frankfurt one can imagine that not a little number of citizens were ruined there, too. Weimar: In order to enter the state administration in Weimar and rise through the ranks his law studies also turned out useful although he only had pursued them as to satisfy his father only.
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This resulted therefore in activities which were a lot more hands-on such as mining, agriculture plus the just upstarting industrialization. During his life time he witnessed the genesis of the modern monetary economic system. In his later role of a "court poet" Goethe arranged numerous court festivities and masquerades of this kind in Weimar. He stated in a letter to Johann C. Lavater on This experience might well have given the inspiration and contributed greatly to the decisive scenes of Faust II where decision making is glossed over and substituted with festivities.
This, of course, has been provided by Mephistopheles as part of his pact with Dr.
Heinrich Faust who tries to endear himself to Gretchen through this expensive gift. We see that here in his work Faust I high value is depicted by Goethe by commodities like gold, precious stones and pearls. In Faust II Mephistopheles goes further.
Now, paper slips with the signature of the emperor suffice, which are supposed to be ominously backed by treasures that are assumed to be buried below the surface of the imperial lands Lines 26 ibid.
It is noteworthy that the name Mephistopheles seems to sound Greek but probably derives from Hebrew, namely a combination of the two participles mephir, also written mefir destroyer, spoiler und tophel liar Mephistopheles, scoffing in Line 28 The power center of the Empire is the throne room.
But the reports on the situation, which are stated by the members of the State Council, give the image of a decaying state in Lines - While the ruling class is situated in lavish circumstances at court Lines , the bankruptcy of the country advances rapidly Lines , Line The Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces has his troops no longer under control and have rendered the country ungovernable Lines Line The impatient mercenaries Impetuously demand their pay, Line The Treasurer: But our coffers still are empty.
Line 30 10 Goethe and the Creation of Money, Prof.
George Reiff, PhD The Carnival Scene of Faust II and a hidden Plan Mephistopheles only goes more into detail regarding his plans in the Carnival scene 31 that takes place in the spacious banquet hall where a kind of court festival with masked participants takes place.
He succeeds in making the emperor casually sign a certificate. This he duplicates overnight and subsequently spreads the new certificates as paper money. The scene ends in a fire disaster, sparked by a glowing gold cauldron, which Dr. And as it turns out in the next scene, the emperor did not notice what he certified with his signature.
He is confronted with the fact that paper money — here obviously the invention of the devil - is already in circulation. It is easy to recognize in the Do reference like a string of recitation at least in the first five verses.
Adhering to the initial versewill compare the transcription of the musicologist Jacques Handschin uber die mehrstimmige Musik der St.
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His speech evolves towards a relaxation of the tension and a renewal to the State of equilibrium represented by the initial verses.
We can simplify the tonal and harmonic structure of the organum analyzing the succession of intervals that form between both voices at the moment that changes the main lower voice. The syllabic passages of the organal voice intensifies speeding up speech while maintaining your registration on the sharp edge reaches the S ol in exultmus 7 and again the in verse 8.
Melody moves on a plagal scope of ninth from the bottom Do to Reby which could be classified as belonging to the mode jbilemus. These two verses are slightly different to the previous tonal structures and introduce a new cadential formula the rima b.
The jumps are jbuilemus thirdexcept for a jump from fourth just in the last sentence do not include the fifth jump located in the change of semifrase of the third verse. Verse 7 ends with a exulteemus melisma on the note Sol of the lower voice. The final verse reaches for the last time the acute near the endprecipitating the resolution in a virtuosic phrase by recovering the cadential jubilemjs b. The synchronicity of voices is equally vague.
Qui hodie de Marie utero progrediens. Jubilemus exultemus Despite sharing characteristics very similar to the previous verseverse 2 does not repeat literally any significant melodic gesture — with the exception of the cadential formula end-which gives account of the character and source of the organal voice improvisatory.As they try to come after Mephistopheles and kill him, the Devil transports them into an alternate reality while he and Faust make their escape.
In Faust's study, the poodle transforms into Mephistopheles. Book ratings by Goodreads. Mephistopheles makes a bet with The Lord that he will be able to turn one of his servants, Dr. Set doable personal goals and track your progress you can photocopy the worksheets from the book or download and print additional copies.
In the end, Mephistopheles wins the argument and Faust signs the contract with a drop of his own blood. This type of expressive resources are used increasingly intensively in the last three verses.
The widely known biography of Scotsman John Law, who was a soldier of fortune, mathematician and gambler, is a very good example. So managers are constrained too; instead of just doing things, they have to act through subordinates. Bethmann Bank was founded in the 18th century and became one of the main financial partners of the Habsburgs due to the issuance of bonds.