INTERNET CONCEPTS PDF

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about some fundamental concepts such as networks, servers, and The internet is the largest computer network in the world, connecting. The Background and Detail for Trainer provides greater details on the content, and links to references. It will allow trainers to learn more about the topic so they . Internet concepts. This part of the module is off-line and intended as an information resource for reference use. This part of the module should be taken before.


Internet Concepts Pdf

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Let's start with some basic terms and concepts: Internet: It might be helpful to think of the Internet as a vast system of roads all connecting to each other. You may. INTERNET A group of two or more devices, that are able to communicate with one another: • The telephone network: interconnection of telephones and switches. The world network of networks, Internet, is considered an inexhaustible source of information. .. "Information at your fingertips" concept. But, who would have.

Table 2. These languages work with web servers to interpret requests from clients, process the requests and interact with other programs that may be needed to fulfill the transactions and indicate to the web server the actual page to serve the client. The middle-tier may be multi-tiered.

That is, it can be composed of several other servers with designated responsibilities, hence the over-all architecture is said to be N-tier.

A fundamental rule in a 3-tier architecture is that the client has no direct line of communication with the data tier. That is, all communications are routed through the middleware tier. They are responsible for storing, retrieving and manipulating the data in the database or other repositories. The client frontend does data presentation and or processing, while the server back-end does storage, security and major data processing.

What is Internet?

That is both the client application, the server application, and the database sever is placed on different folders in the same machine. The client-side code can be structured into layer s of application code, while the server-side code can be structured into layers of application code. It fosters code re-usability, security and convenience. It is a good software design.

The client-side can be categorized into 3. The server holds all the custom application codes.

This is shown in figure 2. The three layers are: Layer 1: Presentation Layer The layer that interacts closely with the user. Layer 2: Business layer The layer that handles the business logic of the code.

These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts. Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow.

In the early days, web pages were usually created as sets of complete and isolated HTML text files stored on a web server. More recently, websites are more often created using content management system CMS or wiki software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or other organization or members of the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form.

There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.

Remote access The Internet allows computer users to connect to other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world. They may do this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements.

This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth.

These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information e-mailed to them from offices all over the world. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice.

An office worker away from his desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can open a remote desktop session into his normal office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network VPN connection via the Internet.

INTERNET - E-Commerce Concepts

This gives the worker complete access to all of his or her normal files and data, including e-mail and other applications, while away from the office. Collaboration The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier.

Not only can a group cheaply communicate and test, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place, even among niche interests. An example of this is the free software movement in software development, which produced GNU and Linux from scratch and has taken over development of Mozilla and OpenOffice.

Films such as Zeitgeist, Loose Change and Endgame have had extensive coverage on the Internet, while being virtually ignored in the mainstream media. Messages can be sent and viewed even more quickly and conveniently than via e-mail.

Internet Concepts and Web Design.pdf

File sharing A computer file can be e-mailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication; the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption, and money may change hands before or after access to the file is given.

The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passed— hopefully fully encrypted—across the Internet. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the basis for the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts.

This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.

Web - Basic Concepts

Internet collaboration technology enables business and project teams to share documents, calendars and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing.

They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver.

The range of material is much wider, from pornography to highly specialized, technical web casts. Pod casting is a variation on this theme, where—usually audio—material is first downloaded in full and then may be played back on a computer or shifted to a digital audio player to be listened to on the move.

These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material on a worldwide basis. Webcams can be seen as an even lower-budget extension of this phenomenon.

While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, the traffic at a local roundabout or their own premises, live and in real time.

Video chat rooms, video conferencing, and remote controllable webcams are also popular. Many uses can be found for personal webcams in and around the home, with and without two-way sound. It is now the leading website for free streaming video.

It uses a flash-based web player which streams video files in the format FLV. Users are able to watch videos without signing up; however, if users do sign up they are able to upload an unlimited amount of videos and they are given their own personal profile.

It is currently estimated that there are 64,, videos on YouTube, and it is also currently estimated that , new videos are uploaded every day.

This phenomenon began as an optional two-way voice extension to some of the instant messaging systems that took off around the year In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the actual voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a normal telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL.

Thus, VoIP is maturing into a viable alternative to traditional telephones. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls.

Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialling and reliability. Currently, a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service, but it is not universally available. Traditional phones are line-powered and operate during a power failure; VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the electronics. Most VoIP providers offer unlimited national calling, but the direction in VoIP is clearly toward global coverage with unlimited minutes for a low monthly fee.

VoIP has also become increasingly popular within the gaming world, as a form of communication between players. Internet access Common methods of home access include dial-up, landline broadband over coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires , Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G technology cell phones. Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available.

There are also Internet access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops, in some cases just for brief use while standing. Many hotels now also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based.

E-Commerce Concepts Related Tutorials

These terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking, bank deposit, online payment etc. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and therefore can do so to the Internet itself. Hotspots providing such access include Wi- Fi cafes, where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA.

These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location. A whole campus or park, or even an entire city can be enabled.

Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench. Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks, and fixed wireless services. High-end mobile phones such as smartphones generally come with Internet access through the phone network.

Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets, which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software.This includes placing or moving mouse over a hypertext link. File sharing A computer file can be e-mailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. Attribute values must be enclosed in single or double quotes.

This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. It is the fastest way to spread information to a vast number of people simultaneously.

The examination at the end of this course will aim at determining the level of mastery of the subject matter.