(PDF). MARKET TARGETS. PArt 4 COMPETITIvE POSITIONING STRATEGIES. 16 STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION AND INTERNAL MARKETING. 17 CORPORATE. Marketing. Strategy and. Competitive. Positioning. Graham Hooley Nigel F. Piercy Brigitte Nicoulaud fourth edition rth edition. Hooley. Piercy. Find all the study resources for Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning by Graham J. Hooley; Nigel F. Piercy; Brigitte Nicoulaud.

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Graham Hooley Nigel F. Piercy Brigitte Nicoulaud“Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning sets the standard agai. Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , G J Hooley and others published Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning.

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An annual anal Embed Size px. Such positioning maps may be an oversimplification, but they show the relative positions of competitors on a common scale. Finally, you must draw the expected-price line—that is, the line that best fits the points on the map.

The line shows how much customers expect to pay on average to get different levels of the primary benefit. You can find the line that best fits the data by taking the slope associated with the portion of the price-benefit equation that links the primary benefit to prices.

Or you can look at the map and draw a line that runs roughly through the middle of the cloud of points; in other words, half the points should lie above the line and half should lie below. Research shows that in almost all industries, a straight line that rises to the right fits the data best.

Curved lines and negatively sloped lines are possibilities in theory, but they describe short-lived phenomena. Markets tend to converge on the same price for each benefit, and people tend to pay more for a higher level of benefit, so those trends create a straight line with a positive slope.

Enterprises position a product or brand above the line to maximize profits, which they can do by simply raising the price in the short run.

Hooley G., Piercy N., Nicoulaud B., Rudd J. Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning

They can also do so by enticing customers to pay a higher price for desirable secondary benefits. Companies can slot their offerings below the line to maximize market share by simply charging less than expected, or they may drop some secondary benefits to attract price-sensitive customers.

For example, if a calorie-free sweetener leaves an aftertaste, people will pay less for the same level of dieting benefit the sweetener gives them. Thus, deviations in price above or below the line are caused by the added or reduced value associated with secondary benefits or pricing strategies designed to milk or build market share.

Let me illustrate the process and purposes of drawing a positioning map by returning for a moment to the challenges that Motorola faced in launching the Razr2. We also gathered all the data we could find on the iPhone. A regression analysis showed that advanced functionality accounted for most of the difference in the prices of cellular telephones.

By advanced functionality, I mean high-tech features like the ability to play music in the MP3 format and to snap high-resolution photographs, the presence of sophisticated e-mail software, and a QWERTY keyboard. Two other benefits contributed to price differences, albeit to a lesser degree: display quality color, high-resolution screens, and touch screens and advanced connectivity Bluetooth, 3G, and Wi-Fi technologies.

These three benefits together accounted for Contrary to the popular perception that battery life and the clarity of sound while making and receiving calls matter to consumers, I found that competition had reduced those to hygiene factors indicated by the fact that their r-square values were extremely low. Motorola had wisely spread its bets, positioning products in four of the five groups. Like all the other cellular telephone manufacturers, it had no product in the ultrapremium segment that the iPhone seems to be pioneering, but it had positioned products on both sides of the expected-price line.

Sony Ericsson, Samsung, and LG had also positioned devices below the line, which suggested that the segment was becoming crowded and prices would soon go into freefall. The LG VX had positioned itself above the line, because of the added pricing power of its superb color display.

Marketing Guides

Mapping the Cell Phone Market Plotting prices against the primary benefit products offer in a market makes it easy to see how that market looks to customers. This price-benefit positioning map suggests there were five segments in the U.

While some customers are likely to postpone downloads of cellular telephones until they can afford the iPhone, it is unlikely to have an impact on the rest of the market—initially. However, Motorola will face a stiff challenge because Apple is deploying its iPod strategy in the cellular telephone market.

If Apple continues to use the same strategy, the iPhone will move quickly from the ultrapremium to a midrange position. How Apple Set the Pace with the iPod Plotting price against the primary benefit over time for a product line can make shifts in market strategy clear.

In this example, Apple has stayed ahead in the MP3-player market since October by giving customers more functionality and additional storage capacity at ever lower prices. That has made it tough for competitors like Sony, Dell, and Creative to gain toeholds.

Apple also created a full line of iPod products, making it tough for rivals to find uncontested spaces. For instance, having a haptic touch screen on the Razr2 is a novel benefit. Do customers want it?

Perhaps—but it comes second to the advanced functionality they are more willing to pay for. Interpreting Positioning Maps Positioning maps help companies penetrate the fog that shrouds the competitive landscape.

Valuing intangible benefits.

Many companies, especially in industrial markets, seek to retain customers by offering intangible benefits. To that end, they spend a great deal of money to offer supplementary services without knowing if customers want them enough to pay for them.

This often proves to be a drain on corporate resources. Companies can avoid the problem by calculating the premiums they earn for intangible secondary benefits.

That was driven home to me when my colleagues and I conducted an analysis of the U.

Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning (4th Edition)

According to a regression analysis, in the early s, variations in engine power, as measured by displacement, explained much of the difference in motorcycle prices. These benefits had helped Harley-Davidson create the impression that its customers were rebels, that they enjoyed an adventurous lifestyle, and that they belonged to a macho club. Harleys had attained cult status, especially among the baby boomer generation. However, the positioning map revealed a different picture.

The price of a Harley was still higher than that of equivalent Japanese motorbikes, but it no longer commanded the highest premiums in the market.

Competitive Positioning

The market leader was leaving money on the table, possibly because its image no longer appealed to customers. The analysis was an early indicator that Harley-Davidson was in trouble, despite the fact that industry experts insisted it would remain dominant owing to its history and market share.

Through these efforts, we welcome more and more African-Americans, Hispanics, women, and younger riders into the family every year. Harley-Davidson is also using its new Buell line to reach out to younger riders who want to have fun rather than portray a macho image.That was a convincing argument for adding dancing to the menu—something the W Hotels chain, which turns its lobbies into clubs, has successfully done.

Even the middle subsegment remained competitive owing to the overwhelming dominance of the Toyota Camry. Creating such a map involves three steps. Piercy " ;. Best Case Neutral Case Worst Case You provide a one-of-a-kind offering that your market needs and wants; you have strong differentiation from your competitors. Segment your market Understand the problems that your market faces.